Leukemia: Up-to-Date Information from Path-ogenesis to Management

Science Insights Medicine, 30 March 2017
2017: e00077
Doi: 10.15354/sim.17.co025
 
Consensus (Narrative)
Leukemia: Up-to-Date Information from Pathogenesis to Management
The Medical Therapeutic Consensus Task Force (MTCTF)*​
 
Author Affiliations
*: The Medical Therapeutic Consensus Task Force (MTCTF), Division of Medicine and Public Health, The BASE, Chapel Hill, nc 27012, USA
* Correspondence to: MTCTF, Email: consensus.med@basehq.org
 
Sci Insigt Med. 2017;2017:e00077. doi:10.15354/sim.17.co025
 
SUMMARY

Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects bone marrow, it’s characterized by presence of high number of abnormal white blood cells in the blood that affects nearly all body organs and tissue and give rise to multiple symptoms and complications. Despite the high number of research studies in the field of leukemia, it’s yet not clear how the disease forms, and there’s no proven mechanism that explains leukemia. Prognosis and responsiveness to treatment is better in children than in adults. There are four main types of leukemia: Acute Lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Chronic Lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia isn’t linked to any specific preventable risk factors, and that’s why it’s totally unpreventable. Non-specific risk factors predisposing to leukemia include irradiation, some types of viral infections, tobacco, benzene, chloramphenicol, phenybutazone, hair dyes, and chromosomal factors. Main symptoms of leukemia include anemia with dyspnea, thrombocytopenia with bleeding tendency, leucopenia with recurrent infections, weight loss, fever, fatigue, anorexia, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, night sweating, bone pain, weakness, and shortness of breath. Diagnosis of leukemia depends on complete blood picture to detect the decreased number of normal blood cells and the increased number of the abnormal leukemic cells. Also bone marrow biopsy, CSF examination, blood chemistry testing, and radiology are useful diagnostic and confirmatory methods. Supportive treatment of leukemia aims aid compensation for the decreased body functions, such as packed RBCs transfusion to compensate anemia, platelet transfusion to compensate thrombocytopenia, antibiotics to compensate for neutropenia, and allopurinol to treat gout. Specific treatment of leukemia depends mainly on chemotherapy, such as busulphan in treatment of CML. The Chinese leukemia treatment “a combination between Chinese & western medicine “is remarkably becoming a popular alternative to chemotherapy.

Keywords:  Labor Pain; Novel Technique; Analgesia; Opioid; Drug Delivery